The Tips for Building Private Brand 开启零售产业新蓝海,浅析如何打造自有品牌?

14 May 2020

With the rapid changes in consumer behaviour, the retail condition has been undergone a seismic transformation. Hence, a new trend is known as “Private label”, has quickly become the blue ocean for the retailers.

Private label generally means the retailer who establishes and brands its own product or service in order for sales and marketing purpose. Either with its own factory or cooperating with OEM, the retailer solely controls the marketing channels in this sales-production combination model. Private label is quite common in the self-brand for department stores, supermarkets, and convenience stores.

随着消费行为的快速变化,零售格局也发生着翻天覆地的改变,自有品牌已成为当前零售业的新蓝海。随之“自有品牌”也逐渐成为零售人热议的话题。那么,究竟什么是“自有品牌”?自有品牌(Private Brand,简称PB)一般是指零售商为了方便于销售,自己创立并使用的新品牌,通过自己设立生产基地,或委托代工企业生产,且独立控制销售渠道,实现产销结合的模式。常见形式为百货、商超、便利店等自有品牌模式。

As a matter of fact, the word ''Private label'' is not a new concept, but it goes way back in the colossal history of how the commerce world has been evolved.

The international retail has started the private label business in the 19th century. In the 1950s, the wholesalers had the upper hand and controlled the market channels. In order to gain more profit, the manufacturers began to cooperate directly with retailers. But retailers started to develop private brands so that they as well will not be controlled by the manufacturers’ pricing.

Beginning in the 1960s, private labels have emerged in countries such as Britain and France. Since private labels have the advantage of ''competitive pricing and good quality'' compared to manufacturer brands.

In the late 1970s, private labels have expanded rapidly in Europe and the United States. Forward to the mid-1990s, private labels in Britain, France, Germany, the United States and other markets have covered a wide range of products. Not only its packaging and design trend to be more comprehensive and more diverse, but the pricing advantage for private label is also further strengthened, and the brand concept is considered mature.

Up to now, the sales of private labels in major European countries have exceeded 10% in general, and some even reached 40%. However, according to statistics, the market share of private labels in China is only 1.3% (data for reference only).

其实,“自有品牌”并非横空出世的新概念,而是有着丰富的发展历程,国际上零售自有品牌起源于19世纪,在20世纪50年代,制造商为了改变批发商控制的渠道优势,以获得更多利润空间,开始直接与零售商合作。而零售商为了不受制于制造商的价格控制,开始发展私有品牌,即自有品牌。20世纪60年代开始,零售自有品牌开始兴起于英、法等国。由于自有品牌相较于制造商品牌具有“价廉物美”的优势,70年代末,零售自有品牌在欧美国家迅速拓展。90年代中期,英、法、德、美等国市场中零售自有品牌的商品品类涵盖范围更广,包装、设计也趋于丰富多样,价格优势进一步凸显,品牌理念已经非常成熟。

截止目前,自有品牌在欧洲主要国家的销售额占比基本超越10%,甚至达到40%以上。但另据相关数据显示,中国自有品牌市场占有率仅为1.3%(数据仅供参考)。

On one side, this reflects that the huge potential of private labels in China has not yet been effectively unlocked. Meanwhile, according to industry data, private labels have found more favour with consumers in China. Traditional retail such as Walmart, Yonghui Superstores, and Hema Xiansheng Supermarket, has established its private labels and attracted consumers’ attention exponentially in recent years.

Since 2015, Japan retail giant AEON has vigorously developed and promoted local products under its own brand ''TOPVALU'' in South East Asia.

In general, AEON captures the Southeast Asian market with three major strategies. First, AEON adapts to the domestic food culture, religion and customs in Southeast Asian countries and invents series of “halal'' food in its R&D centre. Secondly, it widely expands its marketing network and grows the market share by taking advantage of the uniqueness of the variety of AEON branded products. Third, AEON adheres to the combination of ''good quality and low price'' as its sales strategy to further consolidate the brand shares in the Southeast Asian market and cultivate loyal customers.

Therefore, the consumer market is considered widely untapped waiting for private labels to prosper. Below are the breakdowns on how to build a private label in this modern retail landscape:

这从侧面反映,自有品牌在中国有巨大的商业潜力仍未被有效挖掘。同时,根据行业数据显示,自有品牌在中国正赢得越来越多消费者的青睐,以沃尔玛、永辉超市、盒马鲜生等为代表的传统零售与新零售模式融合的自有品牌建设也在近年来得到集中爆发。另外,东南亚市场早在2015就有“日本零售业巨头永旺公司”大力推进自有品牌“TOPVALU”(特慧优)本地商品的开发。永旺公司主要采取三大策略布局开拓东南亚市场。一,顺应东南亚各国在饮食文化、宗教、习俗等风土特点,设立研发中心打造“清真”系列食品;二,广泛布局在当地的营销网络,努力发挥特有的品种丰富的优势,以此实现品牌商品的市场覆盖度和占有率;三,坚持“物美价廉”的销售策略,进一步巩固在东南亚市场的品牌份额,培养忠实顾客。

由此看来,广阔的消费市场,必将为自有品牌发展提供肥沃的土壤。那么我们就“如何打造自有品牌?”并结合零售格局日益迭代背景简要分析:

Establish a brand strategy and build a complete system of categories

To build its own brand, the private label owner must have a complete structure with branding mechanism, product development, marketing, quality control and supply chain system. It is also absolutely important to set up an ecosystem of your own brands.

For example, Xiaomi mobilises its capital to install its own ecosystem. It has effectively solved the possible conflicts of interest between the internal ecosystems in the long-term.

Secondly, it is wrong to build a product category simply by picking different OEMs as you like. It will seem distracted. The best way is to focus on a few limited category products in the initial stage, then expand to full scope followed step by step. A brand matrix with clear thinking in mind will fulfil consumers from different market segments and each corresponding private label will have its accurate target market and positioning.

确立品牌战略,构筑完整品类系统

打造自有品牌必须要有一套完整的系统。要有完整的品牌系统、产品研发系统、市场推广系统、品质管理系统、供应链系统。同时构建自有品牌的生态化体系也非常重要。例如,小米用资本的方式构建了属于自己生态系统。有效解决了各个企业之间的长远利益问题。其次,打造品类系统,不能是今天看到一个产品就想做成自有品牌,明天看到一个厂,就想做贴牌。最终做成的产品是“十三不靠”。缺乏一套体系,这样的做法不可取。初步阶段,要聚焦小品类产品,通过局部拓展到全部,思路明晰的设计出满足顾客不同需求的自有品牌矩阵,每一个相应的自有品牌应有其准确的目标市场和定位。

Focus on production as key to shape recognition for high-quality products

The competition is particularly fierce in the retail industry. In order to separate the brand from other similar competitors, the private label owner should focus on the production with a proper and specific design.

For example, a product must have its uniqueness by having premium quality and competitive pricing. It is necessary for the private label owner to undertake quality control. It also needs innovation and fresh design to captivate buyers' curiosity.

聚焦产品,打造差异化优质产品

在同质化竞争尤为激烈的零售行业,聚焦产品本身,通过打造差异化产品,精准设计和生产,以区别其他同类产品。这其中,既要做好品控,精心打磨产品。也需要具备创新意识,满足消费者的新奇意识,为其提供优质、独特的“价廉物美”产品。

Clear business objective to improve corporate profitability

High gross profit margin is indeed the fundamental reason driving retailers to build their own private labels, and in reality the investment returns the private labels can bring to the company can be enormous.

Therefore, retailers have to determine the profit margins from the start and formulate a complete and feasible business plan. Gradually, it will realise the goal in stages.

By subdividing and optimising existing products, the retailer then can start targeting the right consumer groups and improve the profit margin of products in the same product category. This will benefit the retailer to sort out the brand identity.

On this point, the most classic success story is from the world retail giant Wal-Mart.

Wal-Mart launched its own private label, e.g. HuiYi, in 1992. After more than 20 years, HuiYi’s sales have reached nearly USD 10 billion and the brand retains 2,000 products carrying Wal-Mart's huge sales performance and considerable profits.

明确经营目标,提升企业盈利能力

高毛利的确是驱使零售企业做自有品牌的一大根本原因,也是自有品牌能为企业带来的最大现实回报。因此,零售商一开始就要明晰各品类产品的盈利空间,制定完整可行的经营计划,逐步实现阶段性目标。通过细分优化现有产品,瞄准目标客户群体,提升该品类产品的边际利润,以此来梳理零售企业的品牌形象。

关于这一点,最经典的成功案例,就是世界零售巨头沃尔玛。沃尔玛于1992年开始推出自有品牌——惠宜。经过20多年的发展,惠宜的销售额已经近100亿美元,品牌涉及2000种产品,为沃尔玛带来巨大的销售业绩和可观的利润。

Create shopping experience and enhance customer satisfaction

For example, MUJI and IKEA have improved product satisfaction and brand reputation by constructing a shopping experience that allows consumers to touch and feel the product up close. This requires the private labels to have clear target consumer positioning. Private labels must know how to display the products and must also have a corresponding cultural context. By blending the product or brand into a scene, so that consumers can feel and experience the lifestyle they expected, which turns into impulse buying.

营造体验消费场景,增强顾客满意度

譬如,无印良品(MUJI)和宜家(IKEA)此类产品,通过构建消费场景,满足消费者近距离接触式的体验感,来提升产品满意度及品牌的美誉度。这要求零售自有品牌必须要有清晰的目标消费者定位。品牌要有清晰的场景属性,品牌亦要有相应的文化内涵。将产品或品牌的内涵注入场景之中,使消费者可以设身处地的感受和体验,这其中更多的有获得感转化为消费冲动。

Strengthen customer brand loyalty and maintain brand value

Customer loyalty is a common topic. As long as the retailer grasps the essence of production, serving the customers well and satisfying shopping experience, customer loyalty will be the natural and logical result.

If anything worth highlighting in particular that the retailer often overlooked is the “internal branding engagement”.

In the process of building private labels, it takes all employees from the general manager to the entry-level, to care for its own brand. Not only has it required the company's top-down publicity and training, but it also a long-term commitment to cultivating corporate culture.

It helps to improve the right understanding and awareness of all employees about the private label. Furthermore, it also helps to continuously fill the blank of the brand existence and effectively way enhancing employees' participation and corporate mission.

Once the employees transform to the private label’s supporter, the employees will bring forward brand recognition internally to the consumers, thereby creating a reputation effect.

提升顾客品牌忠诚度,维护好品牌价值

客户忠诚度是一个老生常谈的话题。笔者认为,只要把握好的产品本质,服务好每一位客户,满足客户每一次消费体验,客户忠诚度是水到渠成,顺理成章的结果。如果特别要提的话,有一点时常会被零售企业忽略,即“自有品牌内部推广及参与”。

自有品牌在打造过程中,上至总经理,下至基层员工都要全心呵护自家品牌,不仅需要公司自上而下的宣传和培训,更是一项长久需要坚持的企业文化培育工作,有助于提升全体员工对自有品牌的正确理解和认知,亦有助于不断完成品牌和产品存在的不足,更是提升员工对公司参与感和使命感的有效途径。只有让每位员工正式的转化为自有品牌的粉丝,才能由内而外的使消费者认同自有品牌,从而产生口碑效应。


References:
[1] Cao Jian. Era 2.0 of Chinese private brands [J]. ''International Market'' magazine, 2018
[2] Chen Yuanyuan. The main problem to be overcome in the early stage of the development of private brands [J]. ''International Market'' magazine, 2018

参考文献:
[1] 曹健. 中国自有品牌的2.0时代 [J]. 《国际市场》杂志社,2018
[2] 陈媛媛. 自有品牌发展前期需要克服的主要难题 [J]. 《国际市场》杂志社,2018


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